And to start off, and we talk about this is

fluid mechanics ok. The definition first of all of a fluid, the

official definition in Chapter 1, let me write that down. It’s a substance that deforms continuously

when acted upon by a shearing stress of any magnitude. How many people in here have had ME 218 strength

of materials? Ok almost everybody of course. Take a piece of copper plate, copper plate

and apply force F on it. Here’s the plate. I don’t know, an inch think, six by four

or something like that. Apply 400 pounds on it, the top. This is fixed to the base. When you apply that force to it, you know

from ME 218 for instance. There’s the plate. Now, again here’s the ground. Now I take a layer of water, I apply a force

on there. No, it doesn’t look like that when I’m done

applying force to that plate on top of water. Think what would happen if you apply a force

to that plate on top of a water layer, I apply 10 pounds, will the plate ever stop? Of course not. If I apply 10 pounds, this room is flooded

with water this high, I’m walking in the water at my knees. I put a Styrofoam plate on top of it, I push

on it 2 pounds , 2 pounds with my finger, is it going to stop me from pushing ever? No, and the key word is, oh it’s continuously. This will deform a little bit, then it’s going

to stop; but a fluid will deform continuously. So yeah, that’s fluid, air, oil, jet fuel,

you name it, these things that we live with, water, they are fluids. Now there are different kinds of fluids though. We are all use to fluids like water, or coffee. Pour it from there to there, works really

nice, works really nice. What’s in this cup went in that cup. Now fill that cup there with cold air, try

and pour cold air into that cup over there. No it won’t do it, it won’t do it, it

will spread out when it comes out, it will go all-apart in a big plume. Why? Because the molecules are not attached

to each other as strongly as they are in that liquid. Are they both fluids? sure! of course they

are. Put air in here, push on a plate in air it

will still move. Yeah they are both fluids, liquids and gases,

but not solids, not solids. Well maybe not quite, maybe not quite. Take the cap off a toothpaste, turn it upside

down, does it run out? Not really, no, unless its been in the car

for 2 hours in 100 degree temperatures. No, what makes it come out? I’ve got to press on the tube. Ok so it takes an initial stress, shearing

stress to move it, to get it moving. Once it’s moving it moves pretty good, but

it takes that initial shearing stress. It could be, you know, some very thick things

like some epoxy’s you know, you can turn them upside down, they won’t come out until

you squeeze the tube, a plunger. So yeah those things are kind of like fluid,

but we won’t discuss those in this class. We are not going to worry about you know tooth

paste epoxy and things, we will worry about water, air, oil and things like that, helium,

freon, you name it . So that’ a big different in that, and we are

also going to look at two sets of units. You know a lot of textbooks now they are almost

all in SI, which is so much easier than British system, so much easier. But unfortunately the real world doesn’t go

that way. So our textbook, I forget the percentage,

but it has quite a few, I will call it English as British scribitation. Quite few problems whether they are example

problems or homework, in English and then a lot of SI, a lot of SI. But you graduating have to be conversant in

two languages; otherwise you are not going to show off very well in the real world. You have to know two languages forward and

backwards really really well. The easy one is SI, the hard one is English

engineering. For instance, how many centimeters in a meter,

well you can guess that one ok? How many millimeters in a meter? I’ll tell

you, about a thousand. How many cubic centimeters in a liter? I’ll

tell you, it’s 1000. Do you get the point, everything in SI. Will you go out there and close that door

please? Thanks. Everything, every convergent factor. Ok let me tell you another one. 1 joule divide by 1 second, what is it? Joules

per second. Uh huh, yeah 1. Is it 1? Yeah it’s 1. Ok 1. Everything, convergent SI starts with a 1

times ten to a power, you can’t get any easier than that, now you tell me this, how many

pints in a quart, how many quarts in a gallon, how many gallons in a barrel? Ho ho ho, nothing starts with 1, nothing,

memorize that stuff? No, no, no you don’t memorize it’s right

here. You don’t memorize that stuff, but you still

have some varying instinct. Well I don’t know, but I got this thing in

my pocket, yeah I’ll tell you in a minute ok? Yeah geez, that’s ok but I mean if you divide

by gallons in a barrel no even amount will come out. No, it’s awful; it’s awful, oh power. How many foot pounds per second is a horsepower? Well you know, how about, how many watts in

a kilowatt? Well I’ll tell you, how about a thousand? 1 times 10 to the 3rd. So oh yeah, I mean don’t you wish the whole

world was SI? Of course we all do. But it’s not, and you live in a country that’s,

you live in the worst country for it, a country that is still has both unit systems, so you

have to be really really really good at both of them. That’s why, that’s why my point is, that’s

why when we select a textbook, we make sure the textbook has, if we can find it, duel

unit systems in it, because we know the more you practice the better you get. The problems is most work problems in SI where

they need to practice in English engineering. Ok well that’s neither here nor there, we

there’s problems here there will be problems on homework of both, there will be problems

on tests of both. You can use your, you can use your smart phone

for conversions, there’s conversions on the inside back cover too, SI to British gravitational. So your choice but there will be both kinds

of problems ,for homework and exams. Ok lets just briefly go over the two unit

systems. Let’s do SI first. Ok, force is in Newton’s. Our mass is in kilograms. And of course length is in meters. Ok lets do British Gravitational. Force is in pounds. Mass is in slugs. Length is in feet, and they both have seconds

for time. There is a third unit system that has force

in pounds force, mass in pounds mass, but this is the British Gravitational. You don’t put a subscript on this guy, because

you know if it’s in this system, and it says pounds it has got to be force. So you can skip putting the subscript F on

pounds. Unfortunately you don’t deal with pounds under

mass, you deal with slugs. These are not little creepy crawly slimy things

on to the floor, these are not snails they are slugs. A slug is a unit of mass, how big is it? Anybody

know how many pounds mass are in a slug? What’s the gravitation acceleration in inches,

32.2 right? There you go, 32.2 pounds mass in 1 slug. That means the slug is more massive than a

pound mass, a slug is more massive. Ok so, those are the two unit systems, when

you work on problems for homework or exams that’s what you use there. Ok now, lets take a look, if you’ve had physics

or thermo… Rho density, density mass per volume. If it’s in SI, kilograms per cubic meter. If it’s in British gravitational, mass slugs

per cubic foot. Specific weight, gamma, weight per volume. SI, weight, weight is a force. Newtons per cubic meter. British Gravitational, force, pounds per cubic

foot. Specific gravity. Ok, gamma of the fluid in question under gamma

of water at a certain temperature, like I think it’s 4 degrees, yeah 4 degrees C. R is 39 degrees F, so it’s a ratio, a ratio

is dimensionless. So it’s a dimensionless number, specific gravity. Gamma is the specific weight of the fluid

you are studying, divided by gamma of water at a certain temperature. Ideal gas, our perfect gas law. P over rho equal R times T. P and Tare absolute values. Absolute pressure, absolute temperature, we

will mention absolute pressure in just a little bit. You know absolute temperature at 273 degrees

C, degrees K. Add 460 degrees F to get degrees R, it’s in

the book. This is for gasses, so the good news is what

we are studying in this class, pretty much all the gasses behave like that. As long as you are around ambient conditions

of air, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen behave like that. Viscosity, viscosity is mu, sometimes called

absolute viscosity. Ok now, lets get to our definition of mu. Mu this is the big property that’s different in a thermal

class. What page is that on? Well look after if that’s ok, if I find

it. This is shearing stress, tau is

shearing stress from ME 218. Du dy, this is called a velocity gradient. So if we take a simple case again, take that

plate on water, and here is water. Maybe the velocity looks like this, this will

be capital V velocity, and then this is typical of how the velocity might look between the

plate. Let’s make it linear, make life easy right

now, we don’t want to get too exotic day 1. So this is called a linear velocity gradient

because it is a straight line. Velocity versus the height, the height is

y, the velocity is lower case u. U is a function of y, differentiate that,

that’s called a velocity gradient. You take the velocity gradient like in a bearing. Bearing, or surface that is rotating on its

stationary, stationary, moving. You got 10 weight oil, that’s mu, multiply,

where do you get mu of oil? Back of the book in the appendix . What’s the temperature? I don’t know, 120 degrees fahrenheit. Go back to the book, find mu, put it in here,

multiply it by du dy, which is v divided by the separation distance. And that’s going to give you the shearing

stress that the fluid creates. So viscosity is a property, which is useful

to determine shearing stresses. And there is another property, which is nu,

which is mu over rho; this is called kinematic viscosity. So there are two possible viscosities. One is the real thing, the real thing is this

one up here, this is really the viscosity. If someone just says viscosity to you then

you assume they mean this one. That’s why it is also called absolute and

kinematic. Just to be certain that someone knows what

you are giving them. If you say the viscosity though, the default

definition is here. Kinematic viscosity is this value divided

by the density rho. This thing comes in handy we will see later

on in some equations. It appears the ration mu divide by rho, appears

in some equations so it’s given a special name called the kinematic viscosity. Ok, the units, aw the unit system. If you don’t memorize those things, I hate

to. If you don’t memorize them, then figure

out what they are, what is this guy? Force divided by area, ok so, force divided

by area. The area of this is length squared. What’s this guy? Velocity, length over time. What’s this guy? Length. Ok, cancel, cancel. So figured out the mu is F, this guy is in

the denominator, this guy is in the denominator, put him up here, FT over L squared. This nu kinematic viscosity, divide that guy

by mass divided by length cubed, density. Mass divided by length cubed. We go back here. Viscosity, English units, what are they? Pounds

second per foot squared. Look at it. Pound over there, pound second per foot squared,

yeah. I don’t memorize that stuff, I derive one

if I have to, if I have to. So there is no reason to memorize it because

you know you can derive it, where does it come from? The basic governing equation right

there. Ok, now let’s go on to our last two properties. Next one, by the way before we forget, lets

just go ahead and put this graph up here. This is shearing stress Tau right there, this

is du dy velocity gradient, sometimes called the rate of shearing strain, but the velocity

gradient is sufficient. This is air, this is water, and this is oil. Oh yeah we know intuitively oil is viscous. It will give you very high shear stress for

certain value of du dy, given the value of du dy, air is not very viscous, water is in

the middle of the road, oils are very viscous. Notice those are linear too, which is very

important, those are linear. Those fluids are called Newtonian. There many which are not linear, which we

won’t will study in ME 311, Examples, tooth paste, no its not Newtonian. Latex paint, no it’s not. When you put that paint on a brush, put that

brush in water, pull it out of there, oh the water just runs off. You would be running for the wall, to get

up to the wall before it ran off your paint brush. Now you put that in there, in latex paint,

take it out there, and turn the brush, it stays 124 00:22:27,989 –>00:22:32,259 on the brush fibers until you get to the wall, then you just roll it on or paint it on. Yeah it’s different, it’s not linear, it’s

not linear, the graphs are in the book that way. quick sad, not linear, no no. The more you try and get out, the harder it

is for you. You got to go really really slowly, dont try

and pull your foot out, you go in deeper. It’s all in this graph, tells the whole story. I’ll just show you a couple, some go like

this, some go like that, here is quick sand, here is latex paint, there is tooth paste,

you know, maybe stuff like that. That’s just for your own sideline right now,

what your worried about, are the 3 things us ME’s and CE’s look at most in life. Aero’s & ME’s, Aero’s & CE’s, umm mostly

ME’s, engines and things like that you know. So we are not going to worry about those other

exotic ones, we are going to worry about things like these 3 right here. They are all going to be Newtonian Fluids

in ME311. Ok let’s go to 1 more, ok lets see here we

go; surface tension. Surface tension, the symbol for that is sigma,

there’s sigma, and sigma is the force per unit length, so sigma has dimensions of force

per length. Here is a reservoir; I put this tube in there,

inverted. The liquid will rise up in that reservoir

something like this, you might have seen a mercury barometer on the wall, and the mercury

rises up that glass tube and you read off what the mercury level is. The guy night on the news says, “Ok the

weather forecast, cold front is coming on from Canada, and the barometer is dropping,

its right now 30.05 inches of mercury.” We say, “What do you mean there is mercury

dropping out of the sky on people’s heads?” No, no, now ask any of your friends at night,

say to them, “What does he mean when he says the pressure is 30 inches of mercury?” Most folks don’t have the slightest of course,

they don’t, ask them their tire pressure, oh they will tell you 30-32 pounds in my tires. Do they really mean 32 pounds of air is in

your tire? No, no , they taking shortcuts, they mean

to say 32 psi in my tire. Well, if you put mercury in here, fill the

tube with mercury, invert it, thumb off there, the mercury rises up. At this point right here, mercury does this. Around the glass perimeter, where the glass

and mercury are in contact, the mercury is being pulled down, that’s surface tension,

that’s surface tension. Take water, here is a tube of water. Do the same thing, it doesn’t work quite as

well. But it looks like that, the water is being

pulled up by the glass it seems like, so it’s a property, it’s a property of fluid and temperature. So that’s why it’s force per unit length,

what length is this length? It’s the perimeter of the glass tube, the

perimeter pi times d. So that’s a phenomenon that occurs quite often

in fluids that you should be aware of. What’s this thing called? Surface tension. Try and put, you can do it if you do it really

carefully, a dime, a dime on water if you are really really really careful, you can

float it on water, it won’t sink, it won’t sink. Something is holding, pulling it up around

the perimeter, something is pulling it up, and that’s the water doing that, and that’s

the surface tension in the water. So those are all part of the concept of surface

tension. Ok I think that pretty much covers all of

our important properties in there, so let’s take a look then at pressure. All right, now let’s go back over here to

this thing on here, let’s talk about pressure. Its one of the big concepts in our first fluids

course What do you call pressure in ME218 strengths?

Pressure? Stress, what’s stress? Force per unit area,

what’s pressure? Force per unit area. Right right, different but just different,

those guys are solids, these guys are liquids. Ok, let’s start off by absolute pressure. We will put them all down, Gage pressure. Ok, absolute, referenced to 0 pressure. Referenced to local atmospheric pressure. We’ll use our standard pressure, 14.7 psi. And I think for our, well just use 101 kpa. It’s like 101.3 something something something,

101 kpa. So these are the standard pressure values,

we are not going to use the value in Pomona which is I don’t know 800 feet above sea

level. These guys are at sea level, and I don’t

know 34 degrees data too I don’t know, something like that. They are standard values, we will use those. Ok gage pressure, reference to local atmospheric

pressure. The world local means where you are when you

make the measurement, local means where you are when you make the measurement. If you are in Pomona at Cal Poly Pomona, it’s

the pressure here, that’s’ the local atmospheric pressure. If you are in Denver Colorado, it’s the pressure

in Denver Colorado, at that time of the day, that day of the year, so that’s reference

to where you are. Ok now let’s talk about these guys, gage pressure

can be positive or negative. These guys are always positive because their

references to zero, unless there is a negative absolute pressure. Negative gage pressures are sometimes called

vacuum pressures. So hear the word vacuum pressure, and some

gages will show you positive pressures and vacuum pressures, that’s what they mean by

that. So let’s draw a little picture here to show

us these pressures. The pressures, I will put a little board with

the values of some conversion factors too for you. Let’s start off with zero pressure down here. Zero absolute, and let’s say that this is

the local atmospheric pressure. And let’s call that 101 kpa. And lets call the pressure up here PA. If I measure PA from the local atmospheric

pressure, reference to local atmosphere pressure, that’s this line right here. And PA is going to be, this is given, 200

kpa, gage. This is 101 kpa, absolute. This pressure is 101 plus 200, its not to

scale, 301. If the pressure is down here, and let’s say

that it’s minus 50 kpa gage vacuum. Then the absolute pressure, always measured

from the bottom down up to here, 101 minus 50, 51. 52 kpa and that’s absolute. In the textbook I think he gives us a big

hint, lets see what pressures are her, this picture is in the book too by the way, yeah

so on page 50. Ok here’s what he says in italics. In this textbook, pressures will be assumed

to be gage pressures unless there is specifically designated as absolute. In this book, or homework, in an exam, or

a problem, the pressures are assumed to be gage unless it specifically says absolute. So If I give you a problem on an exam, and

it says the pressure is 50 kpa, that means you assume that’s gage. Unless I put that, then it’s absolute, so

that’s default rule. The default rule is, pressures that just are

in kpa, assume that they are gage, unless they are absolute, there will be a parentheses

with abs after. Or the problem will say the absolute pressure

is 50 kpa. Ok, in English engineering or British Gravitational,

if someone tells you pressure of the air in your tire, make it easy, is 30 psi, how did

they measure? Oh probably a tire pressure gauge I would

suspect, tire pressure gauge. How does a tire pressure gauge work? Oh a typical example, there is a spring in

this thing and the stem pops up and you read it, or there’s a circular gauge you put

on your tire and read it. Take the spring loaded one, what’s the pressure

in your tire doing to that thing? Oh it’s compressing the spring as it pushes it up. What’s it working against? What’s outside

that pencil like device? Atmospheric pressure. So what’s it measuring the pressure with respect

to? Uh huh, 30 psi means that 30 psi gage, and

we don’t say 30 psi gage, we say my tire pressure is 30 psig, that’s standard practice, psig

means gage. If somebody says well then what’s the absolute

pressure of the air in my tires, there it goes, there it is. You’re up here now at 30, 30 above local

atmosphere, 30, local atmosphere, I think I erased it, yup there it is, 14.7. 30 plus 14.7, 44.7 psia, means absolute, that’s

just the way that most engineers work, they use psig for gage pressure, psia for absolute

pressure. But in the world of SI, in the world of SI

you don’t say, you don’t say this, there is no such unit kpag, it’s no, there is

no kpag in the world. So what you do? You have a rule; textbook

rule says if I don’t put anything after kpa, you assume that it’s a gage. If it’s absolute, I’ll put abs after it. Just so on a exam you don’t say professor

Biddle what do you mean by that kpa, I’ll say go back to default what did it say? You only get confused on an exam at the time

of the exam, it makes life miserable. Ok so, that’s the pressure now, and the guy

that says what do you want your tires at 35 pounds? Say no I want 35 psi, because they take a

short cut, they just say pounds, they really mean psi of course, but they say pounds. Ok now let’s take a look at some problems,

similar to homework. Lets see which one I looked at here; I will

take this one first because this is a new one. 177, 177 you have 178 and 180 they are all

the same kind of problem, they’re viscosity problems, viscosity problems. So we don’t need this. Ok I will read it for you, it’s a snow sled. The sled shown in the picture slides along

a thin horizontal layer of water, between the ice and the runners. So here’s the sled, problem 177, here’s

ice, I’m going to expand it up, here’s water, here ‘s the runner on the sled, a

blade, that’s a skate blade. The horizontal force that the water puts on

the runners is equal to 1.2 pounds. Here’s the, ok ill put this for you guys. The sleds’ speed is 50 feet per second. The sled, the runner, the blade runs on water

not ice, water, the total area of both the runners in contacts with the water is 0.08

square feet. The viscosity of water if they didn’t give

it to you, it’s in the back of the book, but they gave it to you, viscosity of water 3.5. So this is mu, they didn’t say kinematic

they just said viscosity assume its absolute. 3.5 times 10 to the minus 5 pound seconds

per foot squared. Determine the thickness of the water layer

under the runners. D, find d. Keep reading; assume a linear velocity distribution

in the water layer, assume a linear velocity distribution in the water layer. So draw this. V is the velocity at the top of the water

layer, it goes down to 0 at the ice, the velocity at a solid surface is assumed to be at rest

for the water, it’s called the no slip condition. Right here, this is called no slip. It means the water doesn’t slip along the

ice, the velocity of the water at the surface of the ice is assumed to be zero. We will make that assumption pretty much throughout

this whole course, the no slip condition. Ok, so I erased it, yeah I erased our equation,

so we have our tau equal mu du/dy,. Our shear stress we know is force over area,

mu du/dy, we are measuring y from here up like this. Ok force is 50 pounds force, 50 pounds, aww 1.2lbs,

velocity is 50. Ok 1.2 divided by

area 0.08, equal mu, ok there is mu, right

there 3.5 times 10 to the minus five, pound second per foot squared. Multiply by du/dy, don’t forget it’s a linear

profile, so you know lucky you, du/dy if it’s linear, equal delta u over delta y. Delta u at the top, v at the bottom, zero. Delta y at the top, d, at the bottom, zero. there it is, du/dy, is delta u over delta

y, equal v over D. V, 50, d is going to be in feet, check it

out, it better come out right here. Ok seconds divide by seconds. Feet, feet squared, feet squared here, feet,

feet gone, the right hand side, pounds per foot squared, left hand side, pounds per foot

squared, we are good to go. Solve for d, it will be in feet, 11.7 10 to

the minus 4. 1 ten thousandths of an inch, 1 ten thousandths

of an inch, that’s the amount of liquid water between the blade surface and the ice on the

Kings hockey people. Not a lot, it doesn’t take a lot, it doesn’t

take a lot, but there is a layer of water under there. I want to show you how you set up the homework

problems, and I will go over it again when you pass your first homework set in, but do

that , the first thing you do, is you draw a sketch is it is appropriate. I mean were engineers, we love sketches. If you are a mathematician, you love equations

and you hate sketches; you want the theoretical solution. If you are an engineer you love pictures,

and you will do the math because you have to do the math, you don’t love the math maybe

but you will do it, because you have to do, it’s in your toolbox. So most engineers think more clearly if they

have a picture, on exam I guarantee, that if you try and sketch something on exam, whether

it is a free body diagram which is essential, ME 214. What it does to you, is it builds a time delay

in your brain, you don’t start writing down and putting numbers or something. And you read the problem, when you sketch

it your mind is working in the background, believe it or not, and it makes life a lot

easier if you do it that way, I guarantee it. Because the way you get flustered & frustrated

is trying start putting numbers on that handheld calculator right away, oh that just destroys

you. If your unsure of yourself that puts you down,

way down there, what you do is you build about 60 second time delay in there so your mind

starts to think about that problem, and the best way to do it, is to draw a picture. When you draw that picture, your mind starts

to think, it’s amazing, the engineering thought process. So anyway, if it’s appropriate, it’s not

all the time, but if it’s appropriate draw a sketch. Once you draw the sketch, I don’t care the

problem has it listed there in paragraph 1, if you put these guys down and look at the

picture you start to see things. When you write the equation down you start

to things, what do I know, what don’t I know, I know it, I know it, I know it, I know it,

I don’t know it, your mind starts to think like that. So much of engineering is having an approach

to solve a problem. We are not backyard you know in your garage

making something, you know that’s you know, where not doing that in your garage, we engineers

are trained to think correctly, it’s pretty fascinating, pretty fascinating. Ok next thing you do, put the equation down,

in symbolic terms. I don’t want to see any numbers in there,

until you write the equation down so I know you are using the right equation, write the

equation. Then you put the numbers in them, then you

put the units by each number, I am repeating things I know I’ve been beating your heads

for 3,4, or 5 years, but I am going to do it one more time. Put the units in, cancel them out like this,

and end up with what you want. All those steps are important steps, as you

do them in the right order, you will be amazed of how things kind of fall out. There might be three or four possible equations,

you might write down three equations. You look at the equations, you look at this

over here, and you say uh no that’s not going to work, one equation two unknowns. Uh no that’s not going to work, one equation

three unknowns, um yeah, he is going to work. So you don’t always know, you don’t always

know which equation might work at the start, sometimes you do, sometimes you don’t. But if you don’t, write down the equations

you think might work, and stare at it, stare at them a while, maybe something will jump

out at you, hopefully, hopefully. Whether it is homework or an exam, now let

me tell you something else, you don’t get ready for an exam by copying the solution

manual. No, no, no, I mean you, tell Kershaw did you

read how to throw the curve ball before the game? He said, are you kidding me? No, I don’t

do stuff like that. I throw it myself 50 times on the sidelines. I developed a new pitch, a slider. How? No, no, I practiced it; I throw a thousands

times on the sideline. You don’t get good until you suffer through

some homework, and say gosh I just don’t get this. I went through that, I get so mad sometimes,

I take my fist and I go, I don’t know why I’m not getting this, at home, in my bedroom

with some nice music on and a Pepsi in my hand. But I still got mad; I got so frustrated and

flustered, but I worked my way through it, and boy you are better for it, you are better

for the pain. The way you prepare for your exams is you

are not surprised. And how are you not surprised? You look at

all the problems I worked in class, you read the example problems in the textbook, and

you go over homework. Don’t read their solutions, because you won’t

be ready for the exam then. Oh sure you’ve seen the solutions, but on

an exam, you won’t be ready, you have got to practice it yourself, and put yourself

in a tough spot, in a real tough spot. Ok we have finished chapter 1, here are your

assignments the next 2 class meetings, oh and by the way my office hours I can make

other times Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday I’m here all 3 days. If those office hours don’t match with yours

let me know, we can meet some other time of day that’s fine, all right we will see you

then on Wednesday.